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Visitor Archive: Guest speakers from around the region

We are fortunate to live, work, and learn in an area that is rich with a variety of highly educated and skilled professionals working at both private and public sector institutions, companies and organizations. Below is a sampling of presentations from guest speakers who have visited classes or events here at LHS. We invite you to inspire our students and enrich their experience. Some of the fields we seek to have represented include academic research, technology & communications, health & medicine, and local industries. If you would like to share your expertise with our school community, please contact us.

World Literature Project Brings Experts to Discuss Wind, Solar, and Other Energy Resources
May 5 & 20, 2016

10th grade Students in Tim Winslow's World Literature class read The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind by William Kamkwamba and Bryan Mealer. In his village in the African country of Malawi, Kamkwamba realized there was consistent wind, so he learned to build his own windmill to supply electricity to his family's home. Kamkwamba attended Dartmouth College and had visited LHS himself a few years back. Since then, he has returned home and worked to provide more electricity for folks in his village. To enhance the experience of reading the story, Mr. Winslow collaborated with LHS librarian Kellie Burke, physics and applied engineering instructor Kieth Matte, and tech integrator Andrew DiGiovanni to create a project that centered around electricity and energy resources. Brian Eisenhauer (left) is the Director of Sustainability and a professor of sociology at Plymouth State University. In his presentation, he explained that achieving sustainability requires attention to what he calls a "triple bottom line" of our society, economy, and environment. If all three considerations need to be factored in, then we put ourselves on track to "solve multiple equations at the same time." 

Whereas potential economic or environmental impacts of different energy sources can be studied and then achieved to a certain measurable extent, "social sustainability is not as obvious" in Mr. Eisenhauer's words. With such a wide range of infrastructures available around the globe, we need to [provide electricity from our resources] in a more equal society to not create imbalances." The worldwide population, now over seven billion, forces many demands on our planet, and in the United States (with over 300 million), we are the top consumer. It was discussed that as our society continues to evolve, our energy needs will always be "a moving target." Thus, sustainability is an ongoing process, in which we search for the right energy sources with the ultimate goal to "maintain people." To do that, we need to "develop an energy system that people can keep using" - which means not only finding abundant and reliable energy resources in general, but incorporating renewable sources and the technology to effectively produce electricity from them. 

Mr. Eisenhauer asked students to tell him what renewable energy sources they had heard about. Collectively, the group highlighted solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, hydrogen fuel cells, biomass, and even ocean tides. He shared the image seen here (at left) that breaks down the uses of energy resources around the U.S., but explained that nuclear power currently accounts for a considerably higher percentage of what fuels our electric grid in the northeast.
Power resources are individually abundant in certain areas of the country. "We see different resources, depending on location," Mr. Eisenhauer expressed. One would conclude that that a solar panel wouldn't deliver as much electricity in Alaska as it could in Arizona. Meanwhile, it was brought up how impressive the growth of solar farms has been in our region, especially when there are not many of them in Florida.

The image at far left generated much interest about where wind power has its greatest potential - most notably the plains, and offshore. At near left, note that Texas and California dominate the wind turbine landscape, while the southeast, as might be expected from the average wind speed map, is quiet in the wind department. As for our own region, students saw that there have been some projects in both New Hampshire and Vermont. Below is a New Hampshire wind map, showing that if wind farms are to be built, they would best be placed either offshore or on certain ridge lines. One of the northeast's best spots for offshore wind farm development is the controversial location for the proposed Cape Wind project.
Mr. Eisenhauer also spent some time talking about the issues surrounding wind farms, such as their impacts atop ridges in interior New England, and how some folks just don't like having them in their view - whether on land or off the coast. Then, there are the claims that they affect bird populations. As it turns out, far more birds die from hitting buildings or being eaten by cats then getting taken out by the blades of wind turbines. (Students really appreciated this fact.) In the case of both wind and solar farms, the power generated by them does not necessarily feed the homes in their own areas. Students learned that in most cases, the electricity is sent into the overall "grid," to be mixed in with power from nuclear plants and fossil fuels - and much of the time, for towns out of state. And in any part of the country, some companies purchase renewable energy credits ("RECs") that support these operations, even if none of them exist regionally. This allows them to claim that they use "green" power, regardless of how much of the actual power they use comes from renewable resources.

A couple of weeks later, Gary Winslow (no relation to Tim) of the Scotland-based company Natural Power, and Brianna Brand of the New Hampshire Sustainable Energy Association, continued our look at the technology, societal benefits, and issues surrounding renewable energy resources - particularly wind and solar. Mr. Winslow is an engineer who has worked on a wide variety of wind farm projects and feasibility studies. He pointed out many things that need to be determined before a project is started, such as a noise study for how a wind farm will impact the surroundings. He also shared number of photos from wind farm projects he had been a part of, and illustrations showing the design of turbine parts. His three images below convey the sheer size and interesting inner workings of wind turbines. In the middle is the steel base of a wind turbine, which gets filled in and covered by the ground when construction is complete. Lower left and lower right images courtesy of
In her presentation, Ms. Brand made a related point that wind power is "a great way to generate electricity [without having] a big footprint." She welcomed students' questions on the political and economic issues related to solar and wind power, and added more background as to how both produce electricity and how the efficiency and use of both resources have grown as of late. Just as Gary Winslow had said the technology, efficiency, and power-generating capacity available with both wind and solar power are "right there with each other," Ms. Brand was pleased to say that "costs have decreased dramatically" to boot. The two graphs she had below summarize the advantageous combinations of greater affordability and installments for wind and solar.

And, there have been significant benefits for landowners who have allowed wind farms to be built on their properties. Gary Winslow concurred, adding that these projects have "saved a lot of people from economic ruin - especially farmers." As Ms. Brand put it, wind farms make it possible to keep open space, and allow for farm land to continue to be used in the same way. And as for solar panel arrays? They can be incorporated into land or virtually any kind of space as it is already being used - like these two New Hampshire examples: a waste water treatment facility in Peterborough (near right) on and the roof of an elementary school in Rochester (far right). 

A key influence on the cost and level of infrastructure for energy sources is the amount of federal subsidies that an industry receives. Mr. Winslow said that fossil fuels still get about $60 million of their budget from them, whereas renewables only receive a small fraction. "But, renewables haven't been around as long." With that, he segued into costs for the consumer. "Wind power, for example, will soon be cheap enough that there won't be any incentives needed for people to take advantage of it."

Mr. Winslow highlighted a lot of the terminology involved in how turbines work, and mentioned the National Wind Technology Testing Center in Colorado (right) as a place for students to visit for a tour if they ever have the chance. He also told them about the many career opportunities available in renewable energy. "The fastest growing job in the U.S. energy sector is [that of] a wind turbine technician," he said. 

Students learned that one turbine can provide power for up to 1000 homes, and considered the great possibilities of being able to turn solar energy into electricity - given the intensity of it in so many areas where it has so far gone largely underutilized. "Enough Sun is falling on Earth to generate plenty of power. The problem is capturing it, and storing it for use," said Ms. Brand - putting the major emphasis on storage, since in addition to night time hours, weather and seasonal changes do limit its consistency in most places. 

Mr. Winslow and Ms. Brand added to Mr. Eisenhauer's discussion of renewable energy credits, and told students about the economics of net metering. Suppose someone who has a solar panel array in their yard is able to produce more power than he or she uses from the grid. The unused portion of this energy is "sold back" to the energy company, which has become a hot button topic. The price that electric companies pay to customers in these cases "might go down to the wholesale price," said Ms. Brand, and both she and Mr. Eisenhauer had mentioned the proposed "caps" on sell-back amounts that have made recent news stories. Ms. Brand admits that as a whole, we do nt want costs to shift to anyone unnecessarily, and that everyone should be able to pay a fair rate for their electricity.

Prior to hearing these guest speakers, students had also done some of their own research on energy topics and issues, and explored online simulations and resources. Afterward, their project concluded with a visit to a wind farm in Lempster. A link to more details on these activities, with pictures, can be seen HERE.

The Swingle Singers coach LHS Superlatives
April 7, 2016

The Grammy Award winning, professional a cappella group The Swingles visited LHS prior to their performance at the Hopkins Center, courtesy of an outreach program through Dartmouth. Students who are members of The Superlatives had a great opportunity to receive feedback from the successful, internationally recognized group. The Superlatives sang Stevie Wonder's "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours," and The Swingles encouraged the students as they shared how and where to change things up, give more energy, or incorporate more rhythm - among several other tips. While in the area, The Swingles coached local singing groups as well. 

New Hampshire High Tech Council presents "TechWomen|TechGirls" at LHS
November 19, 2015
TechWomen|TechGirls, an initiative of the New Hampshire High Tech Council (click on logo at left) is a forum focused on building a strong community of women enthusiastic about technology and supporting efforts for young women to explore STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers. The organization forms community partnerships around New Hampshire, and hosts an annual Girls Technology Day. Governor Maggie Hassan proclaimed the week of November 16th - 20th, 2015 as TechWomen Ambassador Week. Her vision was to encourage women 
working in technology to inspire "TechGirls" to pursue a STEM career. During that time, the committee invited professionals from engineering firms, bio-medical organizations, and advanced manufacturing to visit a number of high schools around the state and inspire female students (primarily 9th graders) to consider STEM fields and gear their academic and personal interests towards those areas. Lebanon High School was proud to be one of the hosting schools. Gov. Hassan stated, "I am thrilled to see TechWomen|TechGirls partnering with the Governor's Task Force on STEM Education - which is working to modernize STEM education in our schools - to make this vision a reality."

The event opened with representatives from the NH Department of Education, including Jen Kiley (right), who shared a recorded announcement from U.S. Senator Jeanne Shaheen. A keynote address was given by Brooke Gatchell (left), 2015-16 Miss University. (See her blog HERE.) Four sessions of workshops and presentations followed, with groups of girls rotating through them to explore the 
many career opportunities that will be available in the future, and hear what it takes to get into those fields (e.g. skills, education, and training) - as well as what the typical day is like in those jobs. Tara Stark of Red River in Claremont (right) spoke about several career paths and options in a workshop titled "What Kind of Engineer Am I?" She shared personal and real-life examples, describing how she got to where she was in her career, and directed the girls to this online assessment tool from Texas A&M University.

Lauryn Schimmel of ChartaCloud Technologies (left) showed off the NAO Humanoid Robot. The NAO recognized faces and objects, danced, told stories, and kicked a ball. Applications for the robot were created in the software program Choreographe.

Evidence of atmospheric change due to geologic events and the industrial revolution - which are linked to shifts in climate - lie in ice core samples obtained from deep in the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland. Polar scientist and engineering professor Mary Albert of Dartmouth College (left) came to share some clues to the past, with her graduate student Carolyn Stwertka. At far right, Ms. Stwertka holds an actual ice core sample up to the light, which reveals the internally trapped gas bubbles that scientists study. Find out more about Dartmouth's Ice Research Laboratory and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program.

Our "TechGirls" were given an overview in how clinical microbiology plays a crucial role in the health of individuals and the communities in which they live. Nisalda Carreiro, a lab scientist at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (far left), described how important microbiology is in the health care setting and other types of institutions. She brought in a microscope and samples of stained bacteria such as E. coli and staphylococcus aureus, as well as yeast, for everyone to take a close-up look at.

Beth Horstmann and Robin Tindall of Hypertherm (left and below) discussed modern manufacturing principles, like their company's efforts in environmental sustainability as well as efficiency - which are both achieved thanks to the work of engineers. 

Susan Davis of Albany Engineered Composites (right) described what her organization was, as well as her path into a technical field. She spotlighted the graphical representation of women in the company.

Finally, we were joined by Al Flory, Guidance Director at the Hartford Area Career and Technology Center (HACTC) (left). He had some closing words to share our appreciation for all of the presenters and volunteers who made this possible, and reminded the girls to reach as high as they could in their careers. He also mentioned the opportunities that HACTC offers to Lebanon High School students, including the new STEAM program that will be underway next year. 

For information about extended learning opportunities for LHS students who would like to pursue STEM careers (whether you are a parent or someone in our region who would like to create a partnership or opportunity), please contact Joy Gobin at (603) 448-2055 ext. 3017.

Betsy Duany, LHS Library Assistant
March 26, 2015

Our own Betsy Duany spent nine years at WNNE-TV (Channel 31, an NBC affiliate based in White River Junction) when the station still had locally-produced news programming. She served as a master control operator and commercial producer, and gained experience in all aspects of television - including helping with the technical side of the news. Mrs. Duany spoke to students about what goes in to producing a commercial, and how the technology of production has changed. The audience got to see highlights of her creative work, and hear interesting tales from her moments in the field.

"Do you remember any commercials that you've seen?" was the question Ms. Duany asked, as she opened up her dialogue with the audience. Students referred to a few aspects of commercials traditionally shown during during sitcoms or sporting events that must have resonated with them - most notably, the use of animals. "Everyone remembers commercials that play with your emotions," said Ms. Duany. Far different from the numerous cable channels available today, she told how she recalled having only a few major over-the-air networks, and the commercials on them being "cheesy and plain.

WNNE News "Promo" produced by Betsy Duany

In her early days at WNNE, Ms. Duany was attending Endicott College and Lyndon State College. She described how she would visit small, local businesses that advertised on the station. Sales staff were "selling 'air'...something intangible," while she was writing copy and going out to shoot the content. Ms. Duany also used to listen to a number of different voices in order to find the right one for what is referred to as a "voice-over." This was all in order to create something to suit each of the businesses. "Back at the station, we would fit the appropriate music, and there was lots of editing," Ms. Duany said. "Once the product was completed, it went back to the client."

The television landscape available at that time was compared to what we have today. One point was the fragmentation of channels that focus on news, cars, or one sport like golf. Then there's the cost of cable TV subscriptions that include loads of channels that a customer may never even watch. And, the rising popularity of streaming services - even for individual premium channels that for years could only be found in cable packages. Mr. Todd mentioned that many students he talks to about their viewing habits claim not to watch conventional TV, but YouTube instead - even if the content they like had technically been produced for television. 

Casey Goodwin of the University of New Hampshire
March 17, 2015

March is Music In Our Schools Month, a time when schools across the country celebrate their music programs, perform, and re-energize their journey towards musical excellence. In honor of Music in Our Schools Month, LHS Director of Bands Lauren Haley arranged for Director of Athletic Bands and Professor of Music Casey Goodwin from the University of New Hampshire to come and give her band students a clinic.

A band clinic is typically when a person of significant qualification is invited as a guest to work with a band to offer feedback for growth. Clinics can vary depending on the preferences of those involved, but typically the most valuable clinics are the ones in which the clinician works directly with the band, conducting them.

Professor Goodwin is responsible for directing the Wildcat Marching Band, UNH Concert Band, and the Beast of the East Pep Band. She teaches undergraduate courses in the areas of conducting and music education. Additionally, she is a faculty member and assistant coordinator of the Summer Youth Music School and a former conductor of the New Hampshire Youth Band. Prior to her appointment at UNH, Goodwin was the Director of Instrumental Music at Marshwood High School in South Berwick, Maine - where she had Ms. Haley as a student.

A true Wildcat, Goodwin earned her Bachelor of Music in Music Education and her Master of Arts in Music with an emphasis in music education and wind conducting from UNH in 2001 and 2006, respectively. As an undergraduate, she held the positions of drum major of the Wildcat Marching Band and student conductor of the Pep Band. While a graduate assistant at the University, Goodwin served as an assistant conductor of the UNH Wind Symphony; wrote drill, arranged music, and ran rehearsals as a staff member with the UNH Wildcat Marching Band; conducted the UNH Pep Band at various sporting events throughout the year; and assisted with variou
s courses within the department. Goodwin is a member of the College Band Directors' National Association, College Music Society, National Association for Music Education, and the New Hampshire Band Directors Association, and serves as the state collegiate coordinator for the New Hampshire Music Educators' Association and the northeast district governor of Kappa Kappa Psi - a national honorary fraternity for college band members. In addition to her work at UNH, she is also an active guest conductor, adjudicator, and clinician throughout the northeast, and has written drill and arranged music for several area marching bands.
“We were very excited to welcome her,” Ms. Haley expressed, “and truly enjoyed and valued the perspective she brought to our music. She worked with us during our class time, offering feedback and suggestions to further improve our performance.” It is incredibly valuable for our band students to experience this type of clinic for several reasons. First, the opportunity to work with a college professor speaks for itself. “Her expertise and musicianship are excellent, and working with someone like her is a great opportunity for our students,” said Ms. Haley. Secondly, receiving feedback from someone new - especially someone like Professor Goodwin, is incredibly valuable, especially before a festival. “She was able to give us a fresh perspective on our music, point out areas that still need improvement, and provide suggestions or different approaches to the same end goal,” Ms. Haley added. “That kind of perspective not only gives us fresh new ideas, but also re-inspires us and the way we play our music.”

Professor Goodwin’s visit was perfectly timed, because LHS band students were in the final stages of preparing for the New Hampshire Large Ensemble Festival, which would take place the upcoming weekend. This festival consists of a performance in front of judges who grade each band on the quality of their playing. Any school concert band from the state can participate. Due to the growth-centered nature of this festival, bands are not ranked against each other, but rather graded on their performance based a rubric. Therefore, multiple bands can receive the highest marks. After each band performs, they have to sight-read a piece of music, which means they have to play a piece they have never seen before, without any practice or rehearsal! After the performance and sight-reading, each band receives a clinic from one of the judges, and then their final score.

“Our students really enjoyed and valued this clinic experience,” Ms. Haley commented, when summarizing the feedback she received from her classes: thoughtful remarks such as, "it was nice to have a different outlook from someone who had never heard us play before with slightly different ideas on how a piece or part should be played." A fellow band member said, "I liked having the experience of listening to someone else's critiques and opinions of the ensemble's sound. I thought having someone providing their own expert opinion was an opportune experience for the band overall. Also, I liked watching and having to adapt to Ms. Goodwin's conducting style. I noticed I was more alert and payed more attention to cues." Reflections on the benefits of the clinic were pretty consistent. "My favorite part of the band clinic was seeing how far we've come with the parts that we played and also seeing how we need to improve before the Band Festival,” said one student. Several noted that they enjoyed working with a different conductor and having a new perspective being taken on their pieces, “such as different conducting styles, tempos, and articulations being stressed." Band mates “liked how we used different techniques in our warm up. I feel like that helped in our real pieces." Said another participant,“it was a great experience and I can't wait for her to come back if she can."

Band students agreed that Ms. Goodwin’s visit left them well-prepared for the festival. "I really liked having another conductor give us feedback! I think it is really beneficial as a whole to get another listener's feedback before our performance.” Not only was the experience one student said, “I thought it was cool for a college conductor come in and help us out with our music." Ultimately, the time spent together in the clinic should make a difference. "It was a good way to get ready for the festival because we got another insight on how we are playing our pieces and how to make them better." Ms. Haley plans to provide more opportunities like this to prepare future LHS bands for state-wide events.

Adam Goldstein of Dartmouth College on Internet Security
February 26, 2015

Adam Goldstein, an information technology security engineer at Dartmouth, came to speak about his work in cyber security and privacy, and how Internet security threats affect institutions of higher education. He pointed to examples of security issues that we see on a regular basis - such as fake websites that install malware. Students were quick to recognize that a site which appeared to have a valid installing window was actually just a scam (see lower left image). Mr. Goldstein confirmed this by saying "even if you hit the 'cancel' button, it will install anyway. The only way out is to close the entire browser." 

In a sobering discussion, Mr. Goldstein brought to light some incredible statistics and alarming information. "Cyber-attack motives have changed the way we defend our stuff," he said. No longer just a digital world where some people are "messing around," the Internet has become full of espionage and intellectual property theft that has reached epic proportions. A great deal of the malicious software and hacking attempts are now controlled by organized crime units around the world. 

"Cyber crime is profitable, and that is a primary motivation for attacks," Mr. Goldstein said. "Everyone and every system is a target, because cyber-criminals need computing resources to conduct their activities." Despite the greater number of security gaps in Windows-based systems, Mac users are not immune. "Forty percent of malware is now written for Macs," the audience was warned. From "phishing" scams in emails to false warnings about FCC fines, Internet fraud comes in many forms. The term "Ransomware" has been given to programs that encrypt files on a computer and then tell the user that payment would be needed in order for them to be unlocked (see lower right image). And even if those files are later released, the perpetrators have still retrieved credit card information. Once viruses or malicious programs are inadvertently downloaded or installed, victims are then directed to pay for another program to remove it. "Scareware" as Mr. Goldstein calls any of these, takes in about $10,000 per day: from a total of $525 million in 2012 to $781 million in 2013, according to federal sources. "And those are only the reported incidents," he added.

Above: The wide range of malicious activity involved with cyber-crime costs victims hundreds of millions of dollars a year. 
Images courtesy of Dartmouth College Information Technology Services.

Mr. Goldstein cited a quote by the Director of the National Security Administration, Keith Alexander, that foreign "cyber-theft is the most significant transfer of wealth in history." Along with terrorism, cyber-espionage is considered a major worldwide threat - and a sophisticated one at that. Cyber-criminals "have lots of expertise and resources," Mr. Goldstein said, and many of them are "nation-state and organized crime-sponsored." In areas such as eastern Europe, many syndicates are able to work under the radar to attack individuals, corporations, and governments. Anything in the digital world becomes a target for attacks. Thus, protecting intellectual property and various "digital assets" has become a "major cyber-security challenge for many organizations," Mr. Goldstein explained. He also gave an example of a foreign attempt to access library resources and the video-teleconference system at Dartmouth College. "There was no apparent financial incentive to this attack, but it could have been done for the purpose of espionage."

When computers and networks are used for political means, such attacks can be called "hacktivism." Many groups - some of them well-known, target internationally recognized colleges and universities, or government agencies, or companies. The United States uses malware as part of its national security efforts - including one that President Obama had admitted was to thwart Iran's nuclear program. "We accuse other countries," Mr. Goldstein commented, "but we're right in there." And cyber-attack events can hit close to home, too - as in the case of the recent Anthem breach. It is now believed that the Chinese government was involved with that high-profile data compromise.

Students and faculty were advised to stay informed about current Internet threats. "Have a defensive mindset," Mr. Goldstein said, as he indicated a number of things for us to be aware of, like the basics of how network protocols work. He suggested that students develop software code programming skills, study web application security (e.g. OWASP Top 10), and use WireShark to inspect network traffic. He also mentioned the wealth of job opportunities in the field of cyber-security.

Mr. Goldstein is the instructor for the free, five-day Cyber Security Summer Workshop offered by the Institute for Security for Technology, and Society (ISTS) at Dartmouth College. Created for area high school students, the workshop will be comprised of interactive and hands-on events, as well as guest speakers. Last summer, topics included data protection strategies such as cryptography, network defense, intrusion prevention, and human factors in computer security. For more information, visit the website

Doug Madory of Dyn Research
January 29, 2015

Doug Madory, Director of Internet Analysis at Dyn Research, returned to LHS in January. He spoke to students and staff about Internet infrastructure and his role as an analyst in the news surrounding the December Internet outage in North Korea. At the time, the country was in the middle of a tense matter with the U.S. over the alleged hacking of Sony Pictures.

Mr. Madory has experience in mapping the logical Internet to the physical lines that connect it together, with a special interest on submarine cables. He explained the tier structure and "layers" of the Internet (the control plane, the data plane, and the physical plane), as well as how routing occurs.

It was very interesting to hear Mr. Madory compare the North Korean Internet to that of the U.S. and other countries. He pointed out that there are not many Internet protocol ("IP") routes for North Korea, only one Internet service provider exists there, and the one link to the outside world is through the city of Shenyang, in China. And while there are around 1,000 unique IP addresses within North Korea, the U.S. has around a billion - and there are 167 million in Japan.

Mr. Madory was approached by a slew of national news outlets, thanks to his expertise in worldwide Internet connections and capabilities. He shared his insight on CBS, NPR and the Bloomberg channel, but found that some other networks were unwilling to actually bring him on unless he was willing to suggest that the outage was caused by a cyber-attack - which he did not have undeniable evidence for. "I was highly sought by [the media] for the world's biggest story for one day," Mr. Madory said, "and then the next day, everyone moved on to something else."

Above: Jane Tangen, Mr. Madory, and Mr. DiGiovanni.
Alex Rimberg of Dartmouth College
January 22, 2015

Professor Rimberg is an experimental condensed matter physicist (click HERE for bio.) Graduate and undergraduate students at Dartmouth assist him as members of The Rimberg Group

During his visit, Professor Rimberg discussed principles such as the wave-particle duality and quantum particle behavior. Students asked questions on a variety of topics, including ideas like the linear superposition of two states - in which a particle exists in two places at once. 

Part of the research that Professor Rimberg shared was that of a nanomechanical resonator, only 10 micrometers long. He described how his team is currently trying to determine how big an object can be made while still behaving quantum mechanically.


Students demonstrated how impressed they were in general by how much scientists have accomplished in developing theories about quantum particles such as electrons. Professor Rimberg expressed some parting words that gave credit to all of what we have learned and discovered through science. "We know a lot more than we used to," he said, "and the more we know, the more we realize how much we don't!"

Above: Mr. DiGiovanni, Professor Rimberg, Mr. Todd, and Jane Tangen.